This article provides a historical overview of the logical processes to achieve a rigorous formalization of language. From its beginnings in Greece to the contemporary proposals of symbolic or mathematical logic. After that, some limitations of classical formalization are postulated and the modern process of formalization is explained. In a third moment, reference is made to the importance of the formal handling of language in the analysis of discourse and the validation of scientific theories, valuing the formal language of logic and mathematics as systems for the construction of science. The formalization of language veraciously supports the handling of scientific argumentation, which can then be translated into technological applications. The objective of the article is to analyze the processes of formalization of language through a historical analysis of logic, in order to determine the logical elements that contribute to the formalization of language and to the construction of valid scientific arguments; and, it will be reached by asking the questions: What philosophical contributions constitute the most relevant postulates for the evolution of logical analysis? What are the limitations of classical or Aristotelian logic in the face of the symbolic logic structured by Frege? What are the contributions from the logical formalization of language for the analysis of discourse and the structuring of science?