Robotic Technologies in ADHD Care: Literature Review

Jonnathan Berrezueta-Guzman, Vladimir Espartaco Robles-Bykbaev, Ivan Pau, Fernando Pesantez-Aviles, Maria Luisa Martin-Ruiz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Robotics has made it possible to change and improve many support processes for vulnerable people in different settings. In recent years, its use has been oriented toward supporting therapeutic interventions of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD), including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This review of the literature highlights how advances in robotics have evolved in different scenarios of ADHD treatment, its collaboration with other emerging technologies, its results, its limitations, and the research challenges for the future development of robotics in the field of supporting children with ADHD. The authors conducted a literature review based on the location of keywords 'robotics' and several NNDs such as 'ADHD', 'Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)', 'cerebral palsy', and 'dementia' in titles, abstracts, and introduction of scientific articles in the Scopus and Web of Science (WoS) database. The reviewed literature was classified according to the type of therapy supported by the robots, the type of robot and the associated technologies. From this analysis, we can solve the research question: Which types of robots have the potential for specific applications in ADHD treatment? Furthermore, this article shows that despite favorable technical results, robotic technologies that support ADHD therapies require significant improvements in terms of scalability, human-machine interaction, and treatment and processing of acquired information to be applied effectively in real-world therapies. The most significant research challenges are proposed to drive research efforts to develop new approaches to enable robotic assistants to participate in ADHD therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)608-625
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported Financially by the UNESCO Chair on Support Technologies for Educational Inclusion, Universidad Polit cnica Salesiana, Ecuador

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.


  • ADHD
  • artificial intelligence
  • ASD
  • augmented reality
  • brain-computer interface
  • educational robots
  • human-robot interaction
  • humanoid robots
  • intelligent robots
  • Internet of Things
  • mobile robots
  • NDD
  • rehabilitation robotics
  • robotic assistance


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