Electric power systems (EPS) are exposed to disconnections of their elements, such as transmission lines and generation units, due to meteorological factors or electrical failures. Thus, this research proposes a smart methodology for the re-entry of elements that have been disconnected from the EPS due to unforeseen events. This methodology is based on optimal AC power flows (OPF-AC) which allow verifying the state of variables such as voltage, angular deviation, and power (these variables are monitored in normal and fault conditions). The proposed study considers contingencies N-2, N-3, N-4, and N-5, for which the disconnection of transmission lines and generation units are carried out randomly. The analysis of the EPS after the disconnections of the elements is carried out by means of the contingency index, with which the impact that the disconnections of the elements have on the EPS is verified. In this way, the optimal route is generated to restore the elements that went out of operation, verifying that when the elements re-enter the acceptable limits, voltage and voltage angle are not exceeded. According to the results of the methodology used, it was found that NM contingencies can be applied in the proposed model, in addition to considering stability restrictions, modeled as restrictions on acceptable voltage limits, and a new restriction for the voltage angle between the differences of the bars.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by Universidad Politécnica Salesiana and GIREI -Smart Grid Research Group under the project “Transmission line dispatch planning considering deregulated markets”.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Contingency analysis
- Optimal power flows
- Power system planning
- Power system restoration
- Power system stability