Optimal Hierarchical Control for Smart Grid Inverters Using Stability Margin Evaluating Transient Voltage for Photovoltaic System

Wilson Pavon, Esteban Inga, Silvio Simani, Matthew Armstrong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This research proposed an optimal control approach for a smart grid electrical system with photovoltaic generation, where the control variables are voltage and frequency, which aims to improve the performance through addressing the need for a balance between the minimization of error and the operational cost. The proposed control scheme incorporates the latest advancements in heuristics and hierarchical control strategies to provide an efficient and effective solution for the smart grid electrical system control. Implementing the optimal control scheme in a smart power grid is expected to bring significant benefits, such as the reduced impact of renewable energy sources, improved stability, reliability and efficiency of the power grid, and enhanced overall performance. The optimal coefficient values are found by minimizing the cost functions, which leads to a more efficient system performance. The voltage output response of the system in a steady state is over-damped, with no overshoot, but with a 5% oscillation around the target voltage level that remains consistent. Despite the complexity of nonlinear elements’ behavior and multiple system interactions, the response time is fast and the settling time is less than 0.4 s. This means that even with an increase in load, the system output still meets the power and voltage requirements of the system, ensuring efficient and effective performance of the smart grid electrical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2450
Issue number5
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This doctoral research, conducted as part of the PhD program at Università degli Studi di Ferrara, presents partial results. The research was supported by both Universidad Politécnica Salesiana and GIREI—Smart Grid Research Group, under the project for optimal control and operation of electrical distribution substations in 2023.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • control
  • distributed generation
  • hierarchical
  • microgrid
  • optimization
  • primary control
  • PV
  • smart grid
  • substation


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