Multiparametric monitoring in equatorian tomato greenhouses (II): Energy consumption dynamics

Mayra Erazo-Rodas, Mary Sandoval-Moreno, Sergio Muñoz-Romero, Mónica Huerta, David Rivas-Lalaleo, José Luis Rojo-álvarez

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6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Tomato greenhouses are a crucial element in the Equadorian economy. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received much attention in recent years in specialized applications such as precision farming. The energy consumption in WSNs is relevant nowadays for their adequate operation, and attention is being paid to analyzing the affecting factors, energy optimization techniques working on the network hardware or software, and characterizing the consumption in the nodes (especially in the ZigBee standard). However, limited information exists on the analysis of the consumption dynamics in each node, across different network technologies and communication topologies, or on the incidence of data transmission speed. The present study aims to provide a detailed analysis of the dynamics of the energy consumption for tomato greenhouse monitoring in Ecuador, in three types of WSNs, namely, ZigBee with star topology, ZigBee with mesh topology (referred to here as DigiMesh), and WiFi with access point topology. The networks were installed and maintained in operation with a line of sight between nodes and a 2-m length, whereas the energy consumption measurements of each node were acquired and stored in the laboratory. Each experiment was repeated ten times, and consumption measurements were taken every ten milliseconds at a rate of fifty thousand samples for each realization. The dynamics were scrutinized by analyzing the recorded time series using stochastic-process analysis methods, including amplitude probability functions and temporal autocorrelation, as well as bootstrap resampling techniques and representations of various embodiments with the so-called M-mode plots. Our results show that the energy consumption of each network strongly depends on the type of sensors installed in the nodes and on the network topology. Specifically, the CO2 sensor has the highest power consumption because its chemical composition requires preheating to start logging measurements. The ZigBee network is more efficient in energy saving independently of the transmission rate, since the communication modules have lower average consumption in data transmission, in contrast to the DigiMesh network, whose consumption is high due to its topology. Results also show that the average energy consumption in WiFi networks is the highest, given that the coordinator node is a Meshlium™ router with larger energy demand. The transmission duration in the ZigBee network is lower than in the other two networks. In conclusion, the ZigBee network with star topology is the most energy-suitable one when designing wireless monitoring systems in greenhouses. The proposed methodology for consumption dynamics analysis in tomato greenhouse WSNs can be applied to other scenarios where the practical choice of an energy-efficient network is necessary due to energy constrains in the sensor and coordinator nodes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume18
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 4 Aug 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was partly supported by Research Grants PRINCIPIAS and FINALE (TEC2013-48439-C4-1-R and TEC2016-75161-C2-1-R) from Spanish Government; Research Grant PRICAM (S2013/ICE-2933) from Comunidad de Madrid, supported in part by the Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE under Research Grant Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks (2016-PIC-043), and 2015-PIT-004; and the Thematic Network: RiegoNets (CYTED project 514RT0486), and PLATANO project from Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Cuenca, Ecuador. The authors are grateful to Wendy Parra-Narváez.

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: This work was partly supported by Research Grants PRINCIPIAS and FINALE (TEC2013-48439-C4-1-R and TEC2016-75161-C2-1-R) from Spanish Government; Research Grant PRICAM (S2013/ICE-2933) from Comunidad de Madrid, supported in part by the Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE under Research Grant Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks (2016-PIC-043), and 2015-PIT-004; and the Thematic Network: RiegoNets (CYTED project 514RT0486), and PLATANO project from Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, Cuenca, Ecuador. The authors are grateful to Wendy Parra-Narváez.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Energy consumption
  • M-mode plots
  • Stochastic process
  • Tomato greenhouse
  • Wireless sensor networks

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