Concern about environmental problems, including the greenhouse effect, directly related to the gases produced by vehicles, has led governments and various organizations to promote standards on fuel use and gas emissions. Therefore, promoting the development of electric vehicles is fundamental to facing the challenges of climate change and achieving sustainable transportation. For this reason, this article presents a bibliometric analysis based on databases to elaborate on the state of the art that integrates successful cases in the design and implementation of charging stations for electric vehicles. Once the results are presented, a methodological model is proposed for the design of charging stations considering restrictions and recommendations issued by international standardization organizations. The Digsilent PowerFactory software analyzes the behavior of active and reactive power, voltage, and current. Finally, a system for different charging modes and powers is proposed. The charging system is tested through the insertion of phase–ground, phase–phase, and three-phase short circuits located at the connection points of the charging stations, and the faults are inserted and released in different periods for the analysis of system stability. As a result, it has a stable system for all proposed scenarios, as long as the fault is released; otherwise, the system remains unstable. The three-phase fault is the most severe for the load system, making the performance of the protections assigned to each circuit essential.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by Universidad Politécnica Salesiana and GIREI —Smart Grid Research Group under the project Charging of electric vehicles in buildings and its impact on the sizing and planning of electrical distribution networks.
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- charging infrastructure
- charging station
- electric vehicle