Sustained growth and progress towards more equitable societies with better opportunities for all depends on how competitive a country could be, which in turn depends on the productivity of its economic sectors. The study aims to analyze the influence of technological innovation to Ecuador's gross domestic product, using a neutrosophic cognitive map that defines the factors that directly affect technological innovation. The PESTEL framework is used to identify the political, economic, social, technological, ecological, and legal factors that contribute to technological innovation in Ecuador's gross domestic product. For this purpose, a quantitative analysis was carried out based on the static analysis and neutrosophic numbers, which facilitated the applicability of the proposal. The main contribution present work is the analysis of interrelations and uncertainty/indeterminacy for analysis of technological innovation. The results show the importance of political and legal factors related to technological innovation projects to gross domestic products growth in Ecuador. The work ends with the conclusion and recommendations for future work.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Grant sponsors: Australian Pacific Science Foundation, the Royal Society of New Zealand Skinner Fund, Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
The authors would like to thank the late Herman Man-dui from the Papua New Guinea National Museum and Art Gallery, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and Dr. Matthew Leavesley from James Cook University, Cairns, Australia for their invaluable expertise during the excavations of the Watom site. We are especially thankful for the chiefs, landowners, and inhabitants of Watom Island, especially those from Rakival Village, for their permission and support during the excavations. The excavations on Watom during the 2008 and 2009 field seasons were funded by a grant from the Australian Pacific Science Foundation and the Otago Museum. They would also like to thank the editors and two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments and edits that greatly improved earlier drafts of this manuscript. Special thanks to Andy Brown and Dr. Aimee Foster for permission to use the map of the Pacific Islands for Figure 1 and Nola Kinaston for assistance with editing.
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- neutrosophic cognitive maps
- neutrosophic numbers
- static analysis
- Technological innovation