Accessibility Challenges in OER and MOOC: MLR Analysis Considering the Pandemic Years

Paola Ingavélez-Guerra, Vladimir Robles-Bykbaev, António Teixeira, Salvador Otón-Tortosa, José Ramón Hilera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The review of state of the art on creating and managing learning resources and accessible Open Educational Resources (OER) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) is a topic that cannot only consider formal literature. The evidence and lack of a measurement consensus require the inclusion of contextual information, corroborating scientific results with practical experiences. For this reason, this article presents a review of accessibility models, OER and MOOC, considering the gray literature to capture experiences and trying to establish a shared understanding of the terminology commonly used in research on virtual accessibility and its impact on higher education. The bibliographic review relies on analyzing articles and scientific publications related to the topic following the Multivocal Literature Review (MLR) format. The results of this review establish that it is possible to apply accessibility review methodologies with transversal actions in the creation and management of learning resources and MOOCs. The research is related to one of the seventeen sustainable development goals defined by the United Nations to ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3340
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: Authors acknowledge The European Commission and ERASMUS+ Programme for supporting this research work as part of the project EduTech (609785-EPP-1-2019-1-ES-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP). The European Commission’s support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Funding Information:
Funding: This research work has been co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union, project EduTech (609785-EPP-1-2019-1-ES-EPPKA2-CBHE-JP).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Accessibility
  • Disability
  • E-learning
  • MOOC
  • Multivocal literature review


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